There was large public outrage at the U.S. government and military, by the American public, against the American military presence in the Philippines islands, the Archipelago. By 1900, the Senate had to meet and the pro/con sides had to decide. Senator Albert Beveridge, Republican of Indiana, stood in front of the U.S. Senate to justify the continuance of Manifest Destiny in the Pacific.
‘Black-birding’ is a British term which was used to speak of the 19th century Pacific labor/slave trade for the colonialists. Australia, France, Britain, Germany and the United States were the main traders. Blackbirding mostly involved kidnapping and trickery (to sign contracts) for laboring in mines and plantations in South America, the U.S., Canadian West Coast, and Australia and their colonies.
The contours of colonialism and cultural identity, along with socio-economic class and discrimination, create the uneven and violent relations within nations. Citizenship is only a paper-worked body-armor when it lives everyday in social relations anywhere.
In the first week of February, there were decisions made by the U.S. government, the U.S. military and the government of Japan, with the governing body of Okinawa, to relocate 4,700 U.S. troops from the Okinawan bases to Guam. This number is about half of what was originally planned.
“In fact, to convince Americans of their superiority over the Filipinos, demonstrate the savagery and uncivilized nature of Filipinos, and rationalize their civilization and benevolent intention in the Philippines, the United States brought over 1,100 Filipinos to the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1902 and sequestered them in what was called “The Philippine Reservation. . . .”
The Aeta, are a Negrito people of the Philippines. Aeta people are among the many Negrito peoples who inhabit the Pacific and the Asian continent, as well as the south seas into Australia and Micronesia.
Between 1962-1975, an estimated 40,000 babies were born in Southeast Asia, who were fathered by U.S. servicemen.
South Korean, Filipino, Okinawan, and Vietnamese activists have for years, protested the presence of U.S. military bases in relation to the exploitation of women–